HN Networks Training.  
Tel: +44 (1628) 622187
email: info@hn-networks.co.uk
Understanding Ethernet, TCP-IP and Voice over IP
   

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    Cost Dates Course location
Public course delivery £1545.00 Dates Maidenhead
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Introduction

This course is designed for those who require a broad and good understanding in the areas of Ethernet, TCP/IP and Voice over IP. In essence a consolidation of a number of other separate courses, this combined course covers many of the technologies necessary to implement local and wide area networks and operate voice over IP in these networks.

Course length

Five days.

Course agenda

The following is an outline of the sections included in the course:

  1. Layered Communication Models: OSI and TCP/IP Models
  2. Ethernet Fundamentals
  3. LAN Switching Fundamentals
  4. Virtual LANs (VLANs) and Trunking
  5. Internet Protocol (IP) Fundamentals
  6. Other layer 3 functions:
  7. Routing IP, Static Routing and Routing Protocols
  8. Network Design and Implementation Hands-on exercises
  9. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  10. Transport Layer Protocols – Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Fundamentals
  11. Application Layer Protocols
  12. Firewalls
  13. IP and Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)
  14. Introduction to voice over IP (VoIP)
  15. Overview of the voice technologies relevant to voice over IP
  16. How is voice actually carried in IP packets?
  17. The H.323 framework for voice over IP
  18. Session Initiation Protocol - SIP for voice over IP
  19. QoS requirements and solutions with voice over IP
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1 Layered Communication Models: OSI and TCP/IP Models

  • Introduction to layered models
  • Benefits of Using a Layered Model
    • Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model
  • Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Datalink, Physical
  • TCP/IP Model
    • Application, Transport, Internetwork, Network Interface
    • TCP/IP Data Encapsulation
  • OSI vs TCP/IP
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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2 Ethernet Fundamentals

  • Introduction to Ethernet
  • Ethernet and the OSI model
    • Layer 1 functions
    • Layer 2 functions -
      • Arbitration, Addressing (MAC), Error Detection (FCS), Encapsulated data identification
  • The various forms of cabled Ethernet
    • The older Ethernet standards - 10BASE5 (Thick Ethernet) and 10BASE2 (Thin Ethernet) (brief)
    • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) and Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)
    • Fibre-optic
  • UTP forms of Ethernet:
    • 10BASE-T
    • 100BASE-T (Fast Ethernet)
    • 1000BASE-T (Gigabit Ethernet)
    • 10Gigabit Ethernet
  • Ethernet frame formats:
    • Ethernet V2
    • IEEE 802.3
    • Sub Network Access Protocol (SNAP)
  • Ethernet addresses - The MAC address - Physical/Unicast, Multicast and Broadcast
  • Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect (CSMA/CD)
  • Performance limitations as a result of collisions
  • Methods to reduce collisions
    • LAN switching
    • Full-duplex Ethernet
  • Wireless LANs - IEEE 802.11
  • Introduction to the Ethernet LAN Analyser with hands-on exercises
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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3 LAN Switching Fundamentals

  • Introduction to bridging and switching
    • Separation of collision domains - LAN segmentation
  • Overview of transparent bridging
  • Ethernet switching:
    • MAC address learning
    • Forwarding and filtering of frames
    • Broadcast, multicast and unknown unicast frame handling
    • Cut-through switching / Fragment-free switching / Store and forward switching
    • Full duplex operation
    • Auto-negotiation
  • Loops in bridged/switched networks
    • The problem
    • The solution - Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)
    • The IEEE 802.1d Spanning Tree Protocol explained
      • Ports and The Spanning Tree
      • Root Bridge election
      • Root Port selection
      • Designated bridge and Designated Port selection
      • Bridge (Switch) Port States
    • Responding to network changes
    • The IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
      • Port Roles
        • Root port, designated port, alternate port, backup port and disabled port
      • Port States
      • Rapid Convergence
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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4 Virtual LANs (VLANs) and Trunking

  • Overview of VLAN concepts and operation
  • Trunking between switches
    • IEEE 802.1Q
    • Trunking Between a Switch and a Router
  • VLAN configuration on the Cisco 2950
  • VLAN trunking configuration on the Cisco 2950
  • Hands-on exercises of configuring and testing VLANs
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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5 Internet Protocol (IP) Fundamentals

  • Introduction to the Internet Protocol (IP)
  • OSI layer 3 functions
    • Path selection (routing), interaction with layer 2, network layer addressing, routing protocols
  • The IP packet header
  • IP addressing
    • Dotted decimal notation and binary view
    • Converting between dotted decinal notation and binary
    • Class A, Class B, Class C (Class D and Class E) addresses - The first octet rule
    • Network address masks
    • Converting IP addresses between decimal and binary format
  • Subnetting
    • Subnet masks and prefix notation
    • Using the logical AND function to find network/subnet and host numbers
    • Subnetting on an octet boundary
    • Breaking the octet boundary
    • How many subnets and hosts per subnet are available?
    • Subnet zero and the all-ones subnet
    • Calculating subnet number, subnet broadcast address and the range of host addresses in a subnet using binary.
    • Calculating subnet number, subnet broadcast address and the range of host addresses in a subnet without using binary.
    • IP subnetting guidelines to meet a given design requirement
    • Variable Length Subnet Masking - VLSM
  • Classless Inter-Domain Routing - CIDR
  • Private Addressing
  • Network Address Translation (NAT) and Port Address Translation (PAT)
    • Static NAT
    • Dynamic NAT
    • Port Address Translation (PAT)
  • Using secondary IP addresses
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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6 Other layer 3 functions:

  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
    • How ARP works
    • What does ARP do?
    • Proxy ARP
  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  • Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)
  • Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)
  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
    • DORA –
    • DHCP Renewal, Release and Refusal
    • DHCP Inform 1
    • DHCP Decline and ARP Duplicate Address Test (DAT)
    • DHCP/BOOTP Relay
  • Name systems
    • The Hosts file on Windows/UNIX/LINUX systems
    • The Domain Name System
      • DNS domains
      • DNS name format
      • Resolving domain names
  • Section summary and end-of-section review
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7 Routing IP, Static Routing and Routing Protocols

  • Routing
    • Routing tables
    • Static routing and its configuration
    • Summary Route
    • Floating Static Routes and Load Sharing
    • Default routes
  • Routing protocols
    • Routed vs. Routing Protocols
    • Dynamic Routing Protocols
    • Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) and Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP)
    • Routing Metrics
    • Types of Dynamic Routing Protocol
      • Distance Vector routing protocols
        • Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Version 1
        • RIP Version 2
        • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IRGP)
      • Link-State Routing Protocols
        • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
        • Integrated Interior System to Interior System (IS-IS)
      • The Internet EGP - Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
    • Classful and Classless routing
    • Classful and Classless Routing protocols
    • Route summarisation
    • Autosummarisation
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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8 Network Design and Implementation Hands-on Exercises

  • Network design using Ethernet switches and IP routers
  • Implementation of network design using static routing
  • Network tools used to troubleshoot issues with the network
  • Implementation of network design using automatic routing protocols
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9 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)

  • Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
    • ICMP - Echo request and echo reply
    • ICMP - Destination unreachable
      • Network unreachable
      • Host unreachable
      • Protocol unreachable
      • Port unreachable
      • Fragementation needed and DF bit set (Can't fragment)
        • Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) and Fragmentation
    • ICMP - Time exceeded
    • ICMP - Redirect
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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10 Transport Layer Protocols – Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Fundamentals

  • OSI layer 4 functions
  • Connection oriented vs connectionless protocols
  • Reliable and un-reliable protocols
  • The use of port numbers
  • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
    • The TCP header
    • Connection-opening and closing
    • Segmentation of data and data sequencing
    • Error recovery
    • Flow control using windowing
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
    • The UDP header
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11 Application Layer Protocols

  • Overview of some applications used with TCP/IP and UDP/IP
    • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
    • Telnet
    • Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
    • Domain Name System (DNS)
    • Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
    • Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
    • Post Office Protocol - version 3 (POP3)
    • Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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12 Firewalls

  • Overview of firewalls
  • Network address translation and port address translation
  • Access control lists (ACL) – Access lists
  • Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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13 IP and Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS)

  • Introduction to MPLS
  • MPLS defined
  • Routing protocol overview
  • Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)
  • Traffic engineering with MPLS
  • QoS and MPLS
  • VPNs and MPLS
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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14 Introduction to voice over IP (VoIP)

  • Why VoIP? A view from a business perspective as to why voice over IP may be an appropriate technology to deploy in many voice related applications
  • A look at voice over IP as deployed across the Internet or across a private IP network.
  • A look at some of the standards for voice over IP:
    • H.323 and related protocols
    • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
    • Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) and Megaco / H.248
    • Cisco SCCP (Skinny Call Control Protocol)
  • A look at some of the devices that may be used to implement a voice over IP network
    • IP phones
    • Power to the IP phone - powered Ethernet
    • Gateways
    • Call control systems
    • IP enabled voice switches (PBX and public network switches)
  • An introduction to some of the challenges of deploying voice over IP
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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15 Overview of the voice technologies relevant to voice over IP

  • Interface types:
    • Foreign Exchange Station (FXS) and Foreign Exchange Office (FXO) interfaces
    • Ear & Mouth - E&M 2 wire and 4 wire
    • 2.048Mbit/s digital interface - G.732/G.704/G.703
    • Channel Associated Signalling ( CAS).
    • Common Channel Signalling (CCS) with a summary of some of the key types including Q.931, QSIG, DPNSS, SS7
  • Voice Coding:
    • G.711 Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) - 64kbit/s
    • Compressed voice:
    • G.728 Low-Delay Code Excited Linear Prediction (CELP) - LD-CELP
    • G.729 Conjugate Structured Algebraic CELP (CS-ACELP) - Also G.729a and b
    • G.723.1 MP-MLQ and ACELP
    • The use of Mean Opinion Score (MOS) to quantify the quality of voice communications
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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16 How is voice actually carried in IP packets?

  • The IP protocol and the key parts of the IP header relevant to voice over IP
  • Overview of IP addressing and network and subnet addressing
  • Other key protocols:
    • Real-Time Protocol (RTP) and Real-Time Control Protocol (RTCP)
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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17 The H.323 framework for voice over IP

  • Overview of H.323
  • H.323 architecture:
    • The H.323 Terminal
    • The H.323 Gateway
    • The H.323 Gatekeeper
    • The H.323 Multipoint Control Unit (MCU)
    • H.225.0 - This deals with a number of aspects of establishing communication across the data network including Registration, Admissions & Status (RAS) operations, along with Q.931 signalling messages for call setup, call control, and communications between terminals, gateways, gatekeepers, and MCUs.
    • H.245 - This specifies the syntax and semantics of terminal information messages as well as procedures to use them for in-band negotiation at the start of or during communication
  • Hands-on network analysis of H.323 voice over IP protocols
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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18 Session Initiation Protocol - SIP for voice over IP

  • SIP architecture:
    • SIP user agents (user devices) - phones, workstations, PDAs etc.
    • SIP servers - Proxy server, redirect server, registrar server
    • SIP location servers
    • SIP gateways
  • SIP functions:
    • Address resolution
    • Session setup
    • Media negotiation using the Session Description Protocol (SDP)
  • Hands-on implementation of SIP PBX
  • Hands-on network analysis of SIP protocols
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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19 QoS requirements and solutions with voice over IP

  • Quality of Service (QoS) issues:
    • Basic voice quality in terms of distortion, frequency reponse etc.
    • QoS issues due to packet loss
    • The causes of delay in a voice over IP system and what delay is reasonable
    • The effect of delay resulting in echo
    • The effect of transporting non-voice signals such as fax, modems, DTMF tones etc.
  • Description of some protocols used to help deliver QoS guarantees:
    • IEEE 802.1p / IEEE 802.1Q
    • Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)
    • Differentiated Services (Diffserv)
  • Multi-Protocol Label Switching support of QoS
  • Section summary and end-of-section review questions
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